The Death of Dahir

Dahir had meanwhile assembled an army of 50,000 horse, and marched from Brahmanabad to Rawar to meet the invader. The armies lay opposite to one another for several days, during which some skirmishing took place, and on June 20 Dahir mounted his elephant and advanced to the attack.
The battle was sustained with great valor on both sides, but an Arab succeeded in planting an arrow, to which burning cotton was attached, in Dahir's elephant, and the terrified beast turned and fled towards the river, pursued by the Arabs. The driver arrested his flight in midstream and induced him once more to face the enemy, and the battle was renewed on the river bank.
Dahir charged the Arabs, and did great execution among them until he was struck by an arrow and fell from his elephant. He contrived to mount a horse, but an Arab cut him down, and the Hindus fled from the field, some towards Aror, the capital, and others, with Jai Singh, to Bahmanabad, while Dahir’s wife, Rani Bai, and her handmaids immolated themselves at Rawar, to avoid falling into the hands of the strangers.
The remnant of the Hindu army rallied at Brahmanabad and offered such a determined resistance that 8000 or, according to another account, 26,000 of them were slain.
Jai Singh, loth to sustain a siege in Brahmanabad, retired to Chitrur and Muhammad captured Brahmanabad, and with it Rani Ladi, another wife of Dahir, whom he afterwards married, and Suryadevi and Parmaldevi, Dabir’s two maiden daughters, who were sent through Hajjaj to the Caliph.
After the capture of Brahmanabad he organized the administration of Lower Sind, placing governors in Rawar, Sehwan, Nirun, Dhaliya, and other places, and on October 9th set out for Aror (or Alor), receiving on his way the submission of the people of Muthalo and Bharur, and of the Sammas, Lohanas, and Sihtas.
Aror was held by a son of Dahir, called by Muslim chroniclers Fufi, whose conviction that his father was yet alive and had but retired into Hindustan to collect an army encouraged him to offer a determined resistance.
Muhammad attempted to destroy his illusion, which was shared by the people of Alor, by sending his wife Ladi to assure them that her former husband had indeed been slain and that his head had been sent to the Caliph's viceroy, but they repudiated her with abuse as one who had joined herself to the unclean strangers. Fufi was, however, at length convinced of his father's death, and fled from Alor by night. Muhammad, on learning of his flight, attacked the town, and the citizens, deserted by their leader, readily submitted to him.
On his way thither he first reached a fortress to which Kaksa, a cousin of Dahir, had fled from Alor.
Kaksa submitted to him, was taken into his confidence and became one of his most trusted counselors. Continuing his march north-eastwards he came to a fortress of which the name has been so corrupted that it cannot be identified, but it lay on the northern bank of the Beas, as it then flowed. It was bravely defended for seven days, but was then deserted by its governor, a nephew of the ruler of Multan, who took refuge in Sika, a fortress on the southern bank of the Ravi.
The people, left to themselves, surrendered the fortress and were spared, but the garrison, to the number of four thousand, was put to the sword, and their wives and children were enslaved.
After appointing an Arab governor Muhammad crossed the rivers and attacked Sika, the siege of which occupied him for seventeen days and cost him the lives of twenty-five of his best officers and 215 men.
When the commander of the fortress fled to Multan and the place fell, he avenged the death of his warriors by sacking it and passed on to Multan. The Hindus were defeated in the field and driven within the walls but held out until a deserter pointed out to Muhammad the stream or canal which supplied the city with water, and this was destroyed or diverted, so that the garrison was obliged to surrender.
In the great temple were discovered a golden idol and such quantities of gold that the Arabs named the city ‘The House of Gold’.
The fighting men were put to the sword and their wives and children, together with the attendants of the temple, numbering six thousand souls in all, were enslaved, but the citizens were spared. Amir Daud Nasr was appointed to the government of the city and another Arab to that of the province, and Arabs were placed in charge of the principal forts.
There is a conflict of authority regarding Muhammad's movements after the capture of Multan in 713, which laid at his feet upper Sind and the lower Punjab.
According to one account he became involved in hostilities with Har Chandra, son of Jhital, raja of Qinnauj, not to be confounded with the great city of Kanauj in Hindustan, and marched to meet him at Odipur, fourteen miles southward of Alwana, on the Ghaggar, and according to another he returned to Aror, but his career of conquest was drawing to a close, his sun was setting while it was yet day.

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