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  • FRAMED FROM ICSE Class 7th Geography Q.1 Which among the following are the fish eating birds ? 1. White breasted cormorants 2. Grey pelicans 3. Flamingo 4. White head gannets or piqueros Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1,2,4 B) 1 & 2 C) Only 1 & 3 D) 1,2,3 Ans. A FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.2 Pink Bollworm & cry toxins are associated with which of the following ? A) Transgenic seeds B) Bt cotton C) Cisgenic organisms D) Bt Brinjal Ans. B Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests such as plant bugs, stink bugs, and aphids; depending on circumstances it may be desirable to use insecticides in prevention. The gene coding for Bt toxin has been inserted into cotton as a transgene, causing it to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues. In many regions, the main pests in commercial cotton are lepidopteran larvae, which are killed by the Bt protein in the genetically modified cotton they eat. This eliminates the need to use large amounts of broad-spectrum insecticides to kill lepidopteran pests (some of which have developed pyrethroidresistance). This spares natural insect predators in the farm ecology and further contributes to noninsecticide pest management. The important advantages of Bt cotton are briefly : • Increases yield of cotton due to effective control of three types of bollworms, viz. American, Spotted and Pink bollworms. • Insects belonged to Lepidoptera (Bollworms) are sensitive to crystalline endotoxic protein produced by Bt gene which in turn protects cotton from bollworms. • Reduction in insecticide use in the cultivation of Bt cotton in which bollworms are major pests. • Potential reduction in the cost of cultivation (depending on seed cost versus insecticide costs). • Reduction in environmental pollution by the use of insecticides. • Bt cotton exhibit genetic resistance or inbuilt resistance which is a permanent type of resistance and not affected by environmental factors. Thus protects crop from bollworms. • Bt cotton is ecofriendly and does not have adverse effect on parasites, predators, beneficial insecticides and organisms present in soil. • It promotes multiplication of parasites and predators which help in controlling the bollworms by feeding on larvae and eggs of bollworm. • No health hazards due to rare use of insecticides (particularly who is engaged in spraying of insecticides). FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.3 Which among the following is/are correct with respect to the slurry of biogas plant ? 1. Replacement of nitrogenous fertilizer with slurry increases the yield of major crops 2. It has shown better yields in vegetable crops & in fodder crops. 3.It has been proved to completely remove the weed growth & their roots Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1 & 3 B) Only 2 C) 2 & 3 D) Only 1 & 2 Ans. B The effectiveness of biogas plant slurry in combination with chemical fertilizers was studied for the production of various crops. Replacement of nitrogenous fertilizer with slurry decreased the yields of major crops, i.e. wheat, bajra, jawar and mustard. Application of slurry to replace half the nitrogenous fertilizer gave better yields in vegetable crops while replacement of the total nitrogenous fertilizer gave better yields in fodder crops. Bio-slurry reduces weed growth. Application of bio-slurry has proved to reduce weed growth by up to 50%. Bio-slurry is an excellent soil conditioner, adds humus, and enhances the soil’s capacity to retain water. Bio-slurry is pathogen-free. The fermentation of dung in the reactor kills organisms causing plant disease.Bio-slurry reduces weed growth. Application of bio-slurry has proved to reduce weed growth by up to 50%. Bio-slurry is an excellent soil conditioner, adds humus, and enhances the soil’s capacity to retain water. Bio-slurry is pathogen-free. The fermentation of dung in the reactor kills organisms causing plant disease. FRAMED FROM ICSE Class 7th Geography Q.4 Which among the following is/are the tributaries of the river Barak ? 1. Maku 2. Shyok 3. Tuivai Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 2 B) 1 & 3 C) Only 1 D) 1,2,3 Ans. B The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by tributaries, such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. FRAMED FROM NCERT Q.5 Which among the following is/are the wetlands ? 1. Swamps 2. Mangroves 3. Ferns Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1 & 3 B) Only 2 C) 1,2,3 D) 2 & 3 Ans. C Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica,the largest including the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain,and the Pantanal in South America. The water found in wetlands can be freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs, and ferns; and sub-types include mangrove, carr, pocosin, and varzea. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth Wetlands have also been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. The most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation. Other important factors include fertility, natural disturbance, competition, herbivory, burial and salinity.When peat accumulates, bogs and ferns arise. FRAMED FROM ICSE CLASS 7TH GEOGRAPHY Q.6 Which among the following is/are correctly matched ? 1. Sunabeda tiger reserve : West Bengal 2. Guru Ghasidas : Chhattisgarh 3. Ratapani Tiger Reserve : Rajasthan Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 1 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 3 D) Only 2 Ans. D Ratapani Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh), Sunabeda Tiger Reserve (Odisha), and Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh). Kudremukh National Park (Karnataka) Suhelwa (Uttar Pradesh), Mhadei Sanctuary (Goa), Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary / Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary / Varushanadu Valley (Tamil Nadu), Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh) and Cauvery-MM Hills (Karnataka) There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA). India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2011 and 2,226 in 2014. The total number of wild tigers have gone upto 3891 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum. FRAMED FROM NCERT SCIENCE Q.7 Which among the following is/are the features that characterizes the Pioneer species ? 1. Most of them are hardy species with non-photosynthetic activity 2. The plants that are often pioneer species tend to be insect-pollinated 3. Orchids, lichens & Algae are the examples of the pioneer species Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 1 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) Only 3 Ans. D Examples of the plants and organism that colonize such areas are pioneer species: • Barren sand - lyme grass (Leymus arenarius), sea couch grass (Agropyron pungens), Marram grass (Ammophila breviligulata) • Salt water - green algae, marine eel grass (Zostera spp.), pickleweed (Salicornia virginica), and cordgrass (hybrid Spartina × townsendii) and (Spartina anglica). • Clear water - algae, mosses, freshwater eel grass (Vallisneria americana). • Solidified lava flows - in Hawaii: swordfern (Polystichum munitum), ‘ōhi‘a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), ‘ohelo (Vaccinium reticulatum) and ‘āma‘u (Sadleria cyatheoides);[3] on Surtsey: lichen (Stereocaulon vesuvianum and Placopsis gelida) and moss (Racomitriumericoides);[4] green algae • Disturbed areas such as construction sites, road cuttings and verges, cultivated lands - Buddleia davidii, Nettles[clarification needed], Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, Argemone mexicana • Bare clay - Orchids • Mountains - Lichens Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously disrupted or damaged ecosystems, beginning a chain of ecological succession that ultimately leads to a more biodiverse steady-state ecosystem Since some uncolonized land may have thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species are often hardy plants with adaptations such as long roots, root nodes containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and leaves that employ transpiration. They are often photosynthetic plants, as no other source of energy (such as other species) except light energy is often available in the early stages of succession, thus making it less likely for a pioneer species to be non-photosynthetic. The plants that are often pioneer species also tend to be wind-pollinated rather than insect-pollinated, Pioneering fauna will colonize an area only after flora and fungi have inhabited the area. Soil fauna, ranging from microscopic protists to larger invertebrates, have a role in soil formation and nutrient cycling. Bacteria and fungi are the most important groups in the breakdown of organic detritus left by primary producing plants such as skeletal soil, moss and algae. Though vertebrates in general would not be considered pioneer species, there are exceptions Pioneer species can also be found in secondary succession, such as an established ecosystem being reduced by an event such as: a forest fire, deforestation, or clearing; quickly colonizing open spaces which previously supported vegetation. Common examples of the plants in such areas include • Raspberry - Rubus spp. • Heaths - Ericaceae spp. • Graminoids, forbs, and wildflowers - native, introduced, and invasive species: such as fire dependent seed, cone, and resprouter chaparral genera. FRAMED FROM Wikipedia Q.8 Which among the following plants is/are classified under the category of aquatic plants ? 1. Duckweed 2. Water Hyacinth 3. Lotus Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D One of the largest aquatic plants in the world is the Amazon water lily; one of the smallest is the minute duckweed. Many small aquatic animals use plants like duckweed for a home, or for protection from predators, but areas with more vegetation are likely to have more predators. Some other familiar examples of aquatic plants might include floating heart, water lily, lotus, and water hyacinth. Some aquatic plants are used by humans as a food source. Examples include wild rice (Zizania), water caltrop (Trapa natans), Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis), Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), and watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum). FRAMED FROM NCERT BIOLOGY Q.9 Which among the following plants can be regarded as a haven for people with pollen allergies ? 1. Summer grass 2. Oak 3. Arizona Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1 & 2 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) Only 3 Ans. D Pollen: Pollen itself is not the male gamete.Each pollen grain contains vegetative (non-reproductive) cells (only a single cell in most flowering plants but several in other seed plants) and a generative (reproductive) cell. In flowering plants the vegetative tube cell produces the pollen tube, and the generative cell divides to form the two sperm cell Non-flowering seed plants (e.g. pine trees) are characteristically anemophilous. Anemophilous flowering plants generally have inconspicuous flowers. Entomophilous (literally insect-loving) plants produce pollen that is relatively heavy, sticky and protein-rich, for dispersal by insect pollinators attracted to their flowers. Many insects and some mitesare specialized to feed on pollen, and are called palynivores. Anemophilous spring blooming plants such as oak, birch, hickory, pecan, and early summer grasses may also induce pollen allergies. Most cultivated plants with showy flowers are entomophilous and do not cause pollen allergies. Arizona was once regarded as a haven for people with pollen allergies, although several ragweed species grow in the desert. However, as suburbs grew and people began establishing irrigated lawns and gardens, more irritating species of ragweed gained a foothold and Arizona lost its claim of freedom from hay fever. FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.10 Which among the following is/are correct with respect to the Sambhar lake ? 1. It is an elliptically shaped lake surrounded on all sides by the Himalayas 2. It is not part of the Ganga river basin area Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 1 B) Only 2 C) Both are correct D) Both are incorrect Ans. B The lake receives water from an endorheic basin with 5700 square km catchment area. It is not part of the Ganga river basin area and is geographically a separate land locked river basin. The lake is actually an extensive saline wetland, with water depths fluctuating from as few as 60 centimetres (24 in) during the dry season to about 3 meters (10 ft) after the monsoon season. It occupies an area of 190 to 230 square kilometers, based on the season. It is an elliptically shaped lake 35.5 km long with a breadth varying between 3 km and 11 km. It is located in Nagaur and Jaipur districts and it also borders the Ajmer district. The circumference of the lake is 96 km, surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hills. The Sambhar lake basin is divided by a 5.1 km long dam made of sandstone. It is India's largest saline lake and is the source of most of Rajasthan's salt production. Sambhar has been designated as a Ramsar site (recognized wetland of international importance) because the wetland is a key wintering area for tens of thousands of flamingos and other birds that migrate from northern Asia. The specialized algae and bacteria growing in the lake provide striking water colours and support the lake ecology that, in turn, sustains the migrating waterfowl. There is other wildlife in the nearby forests, where Nilgai move freely along with deer and foxes. The salt (NaCl) concentration in this lake water differs with season. The salt concentration in the pans Kyars varies and accordingly the color ranges from green, orange, pink, purple pink, red due to the bloom of haloalkaliphilic microorganisms. FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.11 Consider the following : 1. Nilgiri biosphere reserve : Nilgiri tahr & Lion tailed macaque 2. Nanda devi : Snow leopard & Himalayan Black bear 3. Gulf of mannar : Dugong Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1 & 3 B) Only 3 C) 2 & 3 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D Other biosphere reserves : Nokrek : Red panda Manas : Golden Langur, Red Panda Simlipal : Gaur, Royal Bengal tiger , Asian elephant Dihang-Dibang : Mishmi Takin, Musk deer Pachmarhi biosphere reserve : flying squirrel & Giant squirrel Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve : Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, Sarus crane, White-rumped vulture, Philautus sanctisilvaticus(Sacred grove bush frog) Great Rann of Kutch : Indian wild ass Cold Desert : Indian wild ass Khangchendzonga : Snow leopard, red panda Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve : Nilgiri tahr, elephants Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve : Saltwater crocodile Dibru-Saikhowa : Golden langur Seshachalam Hills : Slender Loris FRAMED FROM LUCENT PUBLICTIONS Q.12 Consider the following : 1. Ferrel cell : Intertropical Convergence Zone 2. Hadley cell : Horse latitude 3. Polar cell : Polar front Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) 1 & 3 B) Only 3 C) 2 & 3 D) Only 2 Ans. B Hadley cell : Intertropical Convergence Zone Ferrel cell : Horse latitude FRAMED FROM MAPS PORTION Q.13 Which among the following is/are correctly matched ? 1. Kavaratti : Tamil Nadu 2. Nilgiris : Western ghats 3. Karaikal : Andhra Pradesh Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 3 B) 2 & 3 C) Only 2 D) 1 & 2 Ans. C Kavaratti : Kerala Karaikal : Tamil Nadu Nilgiris : Western Ghats FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.14 Which among the following is/are the tributaries of the Manjra river ? 1. Teru 2. Gharni 3. Lendi Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 2 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 3 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D Manjiira is a tributary of the river Godavari. It passes through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Telangana. It originates in the Balaghat range of hills near Ahmednagar district at an altitude of 823 metres (2,700 ft) and empties into the Godavari River. It flows on the Balaghat plateau along with its tributaries: Terna, Tawarja and Gharni. The other three tributaries of Manjara are Manyad, Teru and Lendi which flow on the northern plains. FRAMED FROM WIKIPEDIA Q.15 Which among the following is/are true with respect to the Seagrass ? 1. Seagrass beds are productive ecosystems & used as fertilizer for sandy soil 2. Excessive input of nutrients are toxic to seagrasses 3. It is used in furniture, and woven like rattan Select the correct answer using the codes given below : A) Only 3 B) 2 & 3 C) Only 1 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D Seagrass beds are productive ecosystems & historically it was collected as fertilizer for sandy soil Seagrasses are in global decline, with some 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi) lost during recent decades. The main cause is human disturbance, most notably eutrophication, mechanical destruction of habitat, and overfishing. Excessive input of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) is directly toxic to seagrasses, but most importantly, it stimulates the growth of epiphytic and free-floating macro- and micro-algae. This weakens the sunlight, reducing the photosynthesis that nourishes the seagrass and the primary production results. Historically, seagrasses were collected as fertilizer for sandy soil. This was an important use in the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal, where the plants collected were known as moliço. In the early 20th century, in France and, to a lesser extent, the Channel Islands, dried seagrasses were used as a mattress (paillasse) filling - such mattresses were in high demand by French forces during World War I. It was also used for bandages and other purposes. Currently, seagrass is used in furniture, and woven like rattan.

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