Q.1 With reference to Tata Vaidya-string instrument, which among the following statements are correct ? 1) They had a varying number of parallel strings made of fibre or gut. 2) In this sound is produced by the vibration of a string or chord 3) Number of strings are stretched on a box of wood in dulcimer type of instrument Codes: A) 1 & 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D The tata vadya is a category of instruments in which sound is produced by the vibration of a string or chord. These vibrations are caused by plucking or by bowing on the string which has been pulled taut. The length of the vibrating string or wire, the degree to which it has been tightened, determines the pitch of the note and also to some extent the duration of the sound. The tata vadya are divided into two broad categories-the plucked and the bowed, and further subdivided into the fretted and non-fretted variety. The oldest evidence of stringed instruments in our land, however, are harps in the shape of the hunters bow. They had a varying number of parallel strings made of fibre or gut. There used to be one string for each note, plucked either with the fingers or with the plectrum called the kona. Veena was the generic term for stringed instruments referred to in texts: and we have the ekatantri, the sata-tantri veena, etc. The Chitra had seven strings and the Vipanchi nine; the first was played with the fingers and the second with a plectrum. Representation of these can be found in many sculptures and murals of olden days, as for example, in the Bharhut and Sanchi Stupa, the reliefs of Amaravati and so on. Mention of. Yazh are found in old Tamil texts from the 2nd century A.D. The playing of such instruments was an important part of ritual and ceremonies. As the priests and performers sang, their wives played on instruments. Another class is of the dulcimer type, where a number of strings are stretched on a box of wood. The best known of these was the sata-tantri veena-the hundred stringed veena. A close relative of this is the Santoor, a very popular instrument still played in Kashmir and other parts of India. A later development of stringed instruments are the fingerboard variety, which were most suited to Raga Sangeet and many of the prevalent instruments of the concert platform, whether fretted or non-fretted, bowed or plucked fall into this category. The great advantage of these instruments is the richness of tone production and continuity of sound. In the finger-board instruments all the required notes are produced on one chord (string or wire) by altering the length of the wire either by pressing it with a finger or a piece of metal or wood. This increase or decrease in the length of the vibrator wire is responsible for the changes in pitches of notes-swaras. Bowed instruments are usually used as an accompaniment to vocal music and are referred to as Geetanuga. They are divided into two broad categories-the upright and the inverted. In the first category the fingerboard is held straight up as in the case of Sarangi and in the second category, that is, in the inverted variety, the board or resonator is held towards the shoulder and the fingerboard dandi is held across the arm of the player as in the case of the Ravanhastaveena, the Banam, the Violin. Q.2 In context with the musical instrument Kamaicha, which among the following statements are correct ? 1) The whole instrument is one piece of wood 2) Spherical bowl extends into a neck and fingerboard 3) Resonator is covered with leather and the upper portion with wood Codes: A) 1 & 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D The kamaicha links the sub-continent to Western Asia and Africa and is considered by some scholars to be the oldest instrument, with the exception of the Ravana Hatta or Ravana Hasta Veena. The variety of upright bowed instruments are generally seen in the northern areas of ttie country. In these there are again two varieties, the fretted and the non-fretted. Q.3 With reference to the Reed instruments, which among the following statements are correct ? 1) In this reeds are bound together with a gap between them 2) The body of the tube is conical in shape narrow at the blowing end and opening out gradually with a metallic bell 3) Shehnai, Nadaswaram are considered as the Reed instruments Codes: A) 1 & 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D Q.4 Which among the following musical instruments are correctly matched ? 1) Tata Vadya : Stringed instruments 2) Ghana Vadya : Solid instruments which do not require tuning 3) Sushira Vadya : Wind instruments 4) Avanaddha Vadya : Percussion instruments Codes: A) 1,3,4 B) 2,3,4 C) 1,2,4 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. D Q.5 With reference to Theyyam , which among the following statements are correct ? 1) It is a popular folk theatre form of Kerala 2) It is performed by particular caste to appease and worship the spirits 3) It is distinguished by colourful costume and awe-inspiring headgears Codes: A) 1 & 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. A Theyyam is a traditional and extremely popular folk theatre form of Kerala. The word 'Theyyam' is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Daivam' meaning God. Hence it is called God's dance. The tradition of worshipping of spirits of ancestors, folk heroes, and deities of various diseases and ailments can be traced back to ancient times in South India. Theyyam is performed by various castes to appease and worship these spirits. One of the distinguishing features of Theyyam is the colourful costume and awe-inspiring headgears (mudi) nearly 5 to 6 feet high made of arecanut splices, bamboos, leaf sheaths of arecanut and wooden planks and dyed into different strong colours using turmeric, wax and arac. Q.6 In context with the Koodiyaattam, which among the following statements are correct ? 1) Naangyaar is the instrument used in this theatre form 2) Hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique Codes: A) Only 1 B) Only 2 C) Both are correct D) Both are incorrect Ans. B Koodiyaattam, one of the oldest traditional theatre forms of Kerala, is based on Sanskrit theatre traditions. The characters of this theatre form are: Chakyaar or actor, Naambiyaar, the instrumentalists and Naangyaar, those taking on women's roles. The Sutradhar or narrator and the Vidushak or jesters are the protagonists. It is the Vidushak alone who delivers the dialogues. Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique. Q.7 Which among the following theatre forms are correctly matched ? 1) Yakshagaana : Karnataka 2) Therukoothu : Tamil Nadu 3) Mudiyettu : Kerala 4) Dashavatar : Konkan and Goa Codes: A) 1,3,4 B) 2,3,4 C) 1,2,3 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. D * Yakshagaana, traditional theatre form of Karnataka, is based on mythological stories and Puranas. The most popular episodes are from the Mahabharata i.e. Draupadi swayamvar, Subhadra vivah, Abhimanyu vadh, Karna-Arjun yuddh and from Ramayana i.e. Raajyaabhishek, Lav-kush Yuddh, Baali-Sugreeva yuddha and Panchavati. * Therukoothu, the most popular form of folk drama of Tamil Nadu, literally means "street play". It is mostly performed at the time of annual temple festivals of Mariamman (Rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest. At the core of the extensive repertoire of Therukoothu there is a cycle of eight plays based on the life of Draupadi. Kattiakaran, the Sutradhara of the Therukoothu performance, gives the gist of the play to the audience and Komali entertains the audience with his buffoonery. * Mudiyettu, traditional folk theatre form of Kerala is celebrated in the month of Vrischikam (November-December). It is usually performed only in the Kali temples of Kerala, as an oblation to the Goddess. It depicts the triumph of goddess Bhadrakali over the asura Darika. The seven characters in Mudiyettu-Shiva, Narada, Darika, Danavendra, Bhadrakali, Kooli and Koimbidar (Nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up. * Dashavatar is the most developed theatre form of the Konkan and Goa regions. The performers personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity. The ten incarnations are Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narsimha (lion-man), Vaman (dwarf), Parashuram, Rama, Krishna (or Balram), Buddha and Kalki. Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar performers wear masks of wood and papier mache. Q.8 Which among the following are the schools of Jainism ? 1) Kottaka 2) Vasavadiya 3) Aryayudikiya 4) Varasna Codes: A) 2,3,4 B) 1,3,4 C) 1,2,3 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. D Q.9 Which among the following are the works of Asvaghosa ? 1) Vajrasuchi 2) Mahalankara 3) Buddhacharita 4) Saundranandakavya 5) Chandistrota Codes: A) 1,3,4,5 B) 2,3,4,5 C) 1,2,3,4 D) 1,2,3,4,5 Ans. D Q.10 Consider the statements regarding Satvahana empire : 1) Coins had bilingual legends & were minted in lead,silver & copper 2) Hathigumpha inscription mentioned Satkarni II as the longest ruler 3) Nagarjunakonda & Amravati were the two important Buddhist centres 4) Nanaghat & Karle cave inscription were found during the Satvahana period Codes: A) 1,3,4 B) 2,3,4 C) 1,2,3 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. D With the fall of the Maurya Empire, most of the vassal states declared independence, and the great empire built by Ashoka and his predecessors lay in fragments. There was much feud and conflict among these small states. The rise of the Satavahana Empire in south-central India provided much-needed peace and stability to the land. The Satavahana Dynasty The Satavahanas find mention in the Puranas, sacred Hindu texts, but their rise to prominence was led by Simuka, who declared his independence from Mauryan rule in about 230 BC. He then embarked on conquests of Malwa and Maharashtra, and annexed parts of western and central India. Simuka's brother, Krishna, reigned next. He added Nasik to the kingdom. Krishna was succeeded by Malia Satakarni and Purnothsanga. Satakarni I, the next king, was the greatest Satavahanan emperor. He ruled for fifty-six years and annexed Berar, Malwa, and many southern states. He performed the traditional Ashwamedha and Rajasuya sacrifices that declared his supremacy. Satakarni II, the next king, conquered Pataliputra and Kalinga. By this time, the Sakas and the Greeks had started to trouble the Satavahana Empire. In about 78 BC, Gautamiputra Satakarni, also known as Yajna Sri Satakarni, took over the kingdom. The Saka Era was established by King Gautamiputra Satakarni and was popularly followed by people in southern India. He was also the king to introduce coins with royal images in India. He was the last powerful king of the Satavahana Dynasty. Though other Satavahana kings are known to have reigned until about 200 AD, most of the empire broke away and the Pallavas, the Western Satraps, the Kadambas, and Ikshvakus had declared independence. Cultural Legacy of the Satavahanas Buddhist and Brahminical literature found much encouragement from the Satavahana kings. While Buddhist architecture was not new to India, the Satavahana kings commissioned some extraordinary stupas (temples), including the renowned one at Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The Satavahana kings of the first century BC also seem to have contributed to building the carved entrances and the banisters at Sanchi. Buddha is represented as the divine spirit and is not portrayed in his embodied form in most Satavahana relics. Mahayana Buddhism seems to have originated in the Satavahana Empire and then spread to other parts of India and the world. Use of Coins The Satavahanas were the earliest Indian monarchs to issue coins with their images. A healthy trade with Rome ensured a steady influx of Roman gold coins. The numismatic images of the Satavahana reign were replete with social, cultural, and religious symbolism. The lead, copper, and silver coins of the era bear royal insignia such as lions and elephants. The patronage received by Buddhism is also reflected in these coins. Historians also suggest that the wise king of Ujjain, Vikramaditya may have belonged to the Satavahana lineage due to the similarity in the royal insignia of Ujjain and the ones inscribed on the Satavahana coins. The kings of the Satavahana dynasty were excellent administrators. They divided their kingdom into many smaller regions called Aharas. Each was administered by a minister, or Amatya. Vaijayanti and Amaravati were the two most important cities in the S atavahana Empire. The beautiful sculptures of the galleries at Ajanta are attributed to the Satavahana artisans. Q.11 Which among the following is correct ? 1) Northern uttarpatha – Taxila 2) Eastern Prachyapatha – Suvarngiri 3) Western Avantipatha – Ujjain 4) Central Province – Magadha Codes: A) 1,2,4 B) 2,3,4 C) 1,3,4 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. C Eastern Prachyapatha – Kalinga Dakshinapatha – Suvarngiri Q.12 Statements : 1) Trading routes during Mauryan period known as Vanikpatha 2) Barbara & Nagarjuna caves were for the purpose of ajivikas sects Which among the above are correct ? A) Only 1 B) Only 2 C) Both are correct D) Both are incorrect Ans. C Q.13 Which among the following statements during Mauryan period are correct ? 1) Civil courts were Dharmasthya while criminal courts were Kantakashodhna 2) Bali & Bhaga were the two kind of taxes 3) Proper system of census was present & Nagarika was the census officer during the Mauryan period Codes: A) 1 & 3 B) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 2 D) 1,2,3 Ans. D Q.14 Which among the following statements regarding Shakas period are correct ? 1) Moga was the earliest shaka ruler who issued copper coins 2) Satrap system is the division of Shakas into many branches 3) Yavanasvara translated Yavanajataka from Greek into Sanskrit 4) Rudradaman-I adopted Mahasatrapa title after defeating satvahana king Satkarni Codes: A) 1,3,4 B) 2,3,4 C) 1,2,3 D) 1,2,3,4 Ans. A The decline of the Greek kingdoms in the north-west coincided with an attack on Bactria itself by nomadic tribes from central Asia. These tribes included the Scythians. The movement of these tribes westwards originated with the activities of the Chinese emperor Shi Huang Ti, who built the Great Wall in the last half of the third century B.C. to defend China's frontiers against the nomadic tribes of the Hiung-nu, Wu-sun, and Yuchchi. The nomads kept herds of animals and pastured them in the plains to the west of China. Gradually, as their pasture lands began to dry up, they made intermittent raids into the Chinese empire in search not only of new pastures, but also the wealth of the more civilized Chinese. But with the construction of the Wall, China was closed to them. The tribes were therefore forced to migrate south and west. Of the three main tribes the Yuch-chi were driven from the best lands and had to flee far across the continent. They split into two hordes - the Little Yueh-chi settled in northern Tibet and the Great Yueh-chi wandered further west to the shores of the Aral Sea, where they stopped for a while, displacing the inhabitants of the region, the Scythians, or the Shakas as they were called in Indian sources. The Shakas poured into Bactria and Parthia. The Parthians failed to hold back the Shakas except for a brief period during the reign of Mithridates 11. On his death in 88 B.C. Parthia was overrun by the Shakas, who however did not pause there, but, using the Bolan Pass (near Quetta), swept down into the Indus valley, and settled in western India, their power eventually reaching as far as Mathura (in the neighbourhood of Delhi) and Gandhara in the north. The first Shaka king in India was Maues or Moga (c. So B.C.), who established Shaka power in Gandhara. His successor, Azes, successfully attacked the last of the Greek kings in northern India, Hippostratos. A later king, Gondophernes, achieved fame through the association of his name with that of St Thomas, it being held by tradition that St Thomas travelled from Israel to the court of Gondophernes. Shaka administration was broadly similar. to that of the Achaemenid and Seleucid systems in Iran. The kingdom was divided into provinces each under a military governor called mahakshatrapa (great Satrap). Each of these provinces was further subdivided into units under the control of lesser governors or satraps, who not only issued their own inscriptions in whatever era they wished to observe, but also minted their own coins, thereby indicating a more independent status than was normal to an administrative governor. The Shakas were destined once more to be driven out by the Yuch-chi. The Chinese historian Ssu-ma-chien records that a Yuch-chi chief, Kujula Khadphises, united the five tribes of the Yuch-chi and led them over the northern mountains into the Indian sub-continent, establishing himself in Kabul and Kashmir by defeating Hermacus. Soon after the middle of the first century A.D. Kujula died at the age of eighty and was sueceeded by his son, Vima Khadphises. (In detail you can read in History Module) Satrap system is the division of Shakas into five branches Q.15 Which among the following statements are correct ? 1) Spotted red sandstone & Jina image was the feature of the Mathura school 2) Use of marble & grey sandstone are the characteristic feature of Gandhara school 3) Curly hairs of Buddha & use of white marble are the characteristic feature of Amravati school of art Codes: A) 1 & 2 B ) 2 & 3 C) 1 & 3 D) 1,2,3 Ans. C The Gandhara art flourished during the Kushana rule in India. Particularly Kanishka, the greatest of the Kushanas was a great patron of art and architecture. It was during his reign that Gandhara School of art flourished. The new Gandhara style of art that developed in sculpture was a fusion of Greco-Roman and Indian styles. The characteristic features of the Gandhara School of art was (1) The subject was Indian . (2) The form of art was foreign. The Gandhara sculptors made images of Lord Buddha in the Greco-Roman style. The images of Buddha resembled Greek God Apollo. Ajanta is famous for both of its architectural design as also the paintings on the cave-walls. Of the 29 caves in all 16 contained paintings which have survived. Though the Ajanta is as old as 1st century AD, most of the specimens belong to the Gupta Age. In the paintings decorative designs have been executed with masterly skill. What are the main differences between Mathura School of Art and Gandhara School of Art? Gandhara School of art - Theme is mainly Buddhist, depicting various stories from the life of Buddha. Also, more stress is given to the bodily features and external beaty. Sculptures were made initially on stone and later on Stucco, both grey in color. This school is influenced by Greeco-Roman techniques to a greater extent. One of the reason is definitely the geographical location of the school. Gandhara school was heavily influenced by Greek methodologies, the figures were more spiritual and sculpted mainly in grey, and great detail was paid to exact depiction of body parts. Mathura school of art - Theme may vary from Buddhist to Brahmanical to sometimes secular. More stress is given to the inner beauty and facial emotions rather than bodily gesture. Sculptures were made on White-spotted red stones. These were not influenced by Greeco-Roman techniques to that extent. Several Brahmanical Dieties were first crystallized by this school. For the Mathura school, the material was red sandstone, and they were depicted as more human and less spiritual. It was wholly influenced by Indian sculptures.

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